What does emulsifier do in bread improver?

Emulsifiers such as DATEM (E472e), monoglyceride (E471) and calcium stearoyl lactylate (CSL, or E482) have a positive effect on the processing quality, floury texture and tenderness. These emulsifiers ensure that the gas bubbles are trapped in the dough during kneading and rising and provide a nice floury texture. Emulsifiers can be left out, but this creates a technological risk because the 'tolerance' of the dough decreases. This results in quality fluctuations and it affects how well the bread can be cut.